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style='margin-left:70.9pt;background:white;border-collapse:collapse; border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:2.85pt 0cm 2.85pt 0cm; mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev:none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td width=185 valign=top style='width:92.4pt;background:#143904;padding:2.85pt 0cm 2.85pt 0cm'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;tab-stops:99.25pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Trebuchet MS","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:white;mso-themecolor:background1;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><a href="../index.htm"><span style='color:white;mso-themecolor:background1; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>LEWISIANA.NL</span></a></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Trebuchet MS","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:white;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:156.0pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.85pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:14.18gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:0cm;mso-para-margin-left: 6.44gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:16.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:22.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:20.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.1pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Quotations and Allusions in <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:22.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:20.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.1pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>C. S. Lewis, <i>The Pilgrim s Regress</i></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 22.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:20.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.1pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>compiled by Arend Smilde (Utrecht, The Netherlands)</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 9.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:16.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Many books by C.&nbsp;S. Lewis are full of allusions to, and quotations from, a great variety of sources, and many of these are unspecified. <i>The Pilgrim s Regress</i>, Lewis s first prose work, probably beats all the others on this score. He certainly wasn t fully aware of how often or how much or how literally or indeed <i>whom</i> he was quoting (cf. third note to chapter V/4, below). Reading and writing appear to have been, for him, much like breathing in and breathing out.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 9.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:16.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>No list of references could ever be complete in these circumstances. However, the present list would have been much further from complete without the results of two earlier attempts, as published in<br>  Henry Noel,  A Guide to C. S. Lewis s <i>The Pilgrim s Regress</i> , <i>Bulletin of the New York C.&nbsp;S. Lewis Society</i> Vol. 2 No. 4 (February 1971), pp. 4 13<br>  Kathryn Lindskoog, <i>Finding the Landlord: A Guidebook to C.&nbsp;S. Lewis</i> s <i> Pilgrim s Regress </i> (Cornerstone Press, Chicago 1995).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 9.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:16.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I am also grateful for much help received from<br>  Dr. John Bremer, director of the Philosophical Institute in Kensington, Maryland, U.S.A. and a chief contributor to the<i> C.&nbsp;S. Lewis Encyclopedia</i> (1998), who kindly sent me his nearly finished but unpublished work on the epigraphs at the beginning of each of the ten  Books in the <i>Regress</i>.<br>  Mr. Paul Leopold in Stockholm, Sweden, who has kindly and generously helped me, and continues to do so, by answering what must by now have run into hundreds of major and minor questions regarding C.&nbsp;S. Lewis  especially <i>The Pilgrim s Regress.</i><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:99.25pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:16.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Items where I am still unable to find the required details are marked by a double question mark in bold type, <b>??</b>. Additions, corrections and suggestions for new entries are welcome.</span><span lang=EN-US style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-13.3pt;line-height: 120%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:120%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:120%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:120%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div style='margin-left:70.9pt;margin-right:70.9pt'> <div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:NL'> <hr size=1 width="100%" noshade style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1' align=center> </span></div> </div> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:120%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:120%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:70.9pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Title</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>The Pilgrim s Regress: an Allegorical etc.</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;The main title is of course a play on the title of John Bunyan s famous allegory, <i>The Pilgrim s Progress </i>(1678 1684). Lewis s idea to write his own story as an allegory was, however, certainly more than simply an idea to take his cue from Bunyan. At the time of writing his <i>Regress</i>, Lewis had been working for several years on what was to become <i>The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval Tradition</i> (1936). In<i> </i>chapter II.3 of that book, the rise of allegory as a literary form in the ancient world of early Christian times is described as resulting from a  change of moral experience  an increased awareness of  the divided will or <i>bellum <span class=SpellE>intestinum</span> </i>( internal war ) within each human being  and a general tendency to  explore the inner world .  We cannot speak, perhaps we can hardly think, of an </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.1pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>inner conflict without a metaphor; and every metaphor is an allegory in little (<i>Allegory</i>, p. 60). In time, the best image to express this inner conflict proved to be not an actual battle, but a journey. Thus  <i>The Pilgrim</i> <i>s Progress</i> is a better book than the <i>Holy War</i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> [another book by Bunyan]</span> (69). Towards the end of his chapter Lewis makes, in passing, the further claim that allegory in the form of a journey is allegory  in its best form (110).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Dedication</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Arthur Greeves</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Lifelong friend of C. S. Lewis s from his birthplace Belfast. Greeves lived from 1895 till 1966. Their friendship began in 1914 on the basis of a shared delight in Norse mythology. By that time Lewis was already mostly living in England. Their correspondence, which in the early years was both copious and highly confidential, was edited by Walter Hooper and published in 1979 as <i>They Stand Together</i>, and later included in Lewis s <i>Collected Letters</i> (3 volumes, 2000 2007 ). Lewis wrote <i>The Pilgrim s Regress</i> in Arthur Greeves s home in Belfast during a two-week holiday which he spent there in September 1932. The poems included in the last parts of the book had been written earlier.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Preface to Third Edition<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Green, Bradley, and Bosanquet</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Three English philosophers, Thomas H. Green (1836 1882), Francis H. Bradley (1846 1924) and Bernard Bosanquet (1848 1923);<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>major figures in the neo-Hegelian,  Idealistic school of philosophy that flourished during their lifetime.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the word  Romanticism ... should be banished from our vocabulary</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;The semantic analysis following here gives a taste of one kind of scholarship taught and practiced by Lewis in Oxford and Cambridge. In his book <i>Studies in Words</i> (1960) a few handfuls of words were treated in a similar, if more comprehensive manner. But no chapter is devoted in that book to <i>Romanticism </i>or<i> romantic.</i> One reason for this might have been that such analyses were already available: in 1924 Arthur O. Lovejoy published an address for the Modern Language Association,  On the Discrimination of Romanticisms (reprinted in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Essays on the History of Ideas</i>, 1946) in which he, too, suggested that it would be best to stop using the word  Romanticism <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>altogether. A long and excellent essay on  <a href="../romanticwords/index.htm"><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration: none;text-underline:none'>Four romantic words</span></a> was published by Logan Pearsall Smith in 1925.<br> <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>Corbin Scott Carnell, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Bright Shadow of Reality: C. S. Lewis and the Feeling Intellect</i> (1974), chapter 1,  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Sehnsucht</i> , offers a<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>detailed discussion of Romanticism as  a genus which contains many species , with special reference to Lewis and the way his peculiar intense longing will or won t fit in.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Alexandre Dumas, etc</span></i></b><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>.</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;The amount of names  dropped in the course of Lewis s items 1 through 7 is too large for many details to be given with them here. I have confined myself to making an <i>alphabetical</i> list of these names, followed by years of birth and death and, occasionally, one or two other details which might be found relevant in the present context.  <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Ludovico <span style='font-variant:small-caps; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Ariosto</span> (1454 1533), Italian poet, author of <i>Orlando furioso</i>. / Charles <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Baudelaire</span> (1821 1867), French poet, author of <i>Les <span class=SpellE>fleurs</span> du mal</i>. / Matteo <span style='font-variant:small-caps; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Boiardo</span> (1434 1494), Italian poet, author of <i>Orlando <span class=SpellE>innamorato</span></i>. / George Gordon, Lord <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Byron</span> (1788 1824), English poet, author of <i>Don Juan</i>. / Samuel Taylor <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Coleridge</span> (1772 1834), English poet and philosopher, author of <i>Christabel </i>and<i> <span class=SpellE>Biographia</span> <span class=SpellE>Literaria</span></i>. / Pierre <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Corneille</span> (1606 1684), French dramatist, author of <i>Le Cid</i>. / Alexandre <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Dumas</span> (1802 1870), French novelist, author of <i>Les Trois Mousquetaires</i>. / John <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Dryden</span> (1631 1700), English poet and dramatist. / E. R. <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Eddison</span></span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> </span>(1882 1945), English fantasy writer, author of <i>The Worm <span class=SpellE>Ouroboros</span></i>. / Jacob <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Epstein</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> </span>(1880 1959), English sculptor who made the memorial stone for Oscar Wilde s grave in Paris. / Gustave <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Flaubert</span> (1821 1880), French novelist, author of <i>Madame Bovary</i>. / Johann Wolfgang von <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Goethe</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> </span>(1749 1832), German writer and poet, author of <i>Die Leiden des <span class=SpellE>jungen</span> <span class=SpellE>Werther</span></i> and <i>Faust</i>. / Maurice H. <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Hewlett</span> (1861 1923), English novelist and poet. / <span style='font-variant:small-caps; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Homer</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> </span>(<i>c</i>. 800 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c.</span></span>), ancient Greek poet, alleged author of <span class=SpellE><i>Ilias</i></span> and <span class=SpellE><i>Odyssee</i></span>. / John <span style='font-variant: small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Keats</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'> </span>(1795 1821), English poet. / D.&nbsp;H. <span style='font-variant: small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Lawrence</span> (1885 1930), English novelist and poet, author of <i>Sons and Lovers</i>. / Thomas <span style='font-variant: small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Malory</span> (<i>c</i>. 1400 1470), English writer and editor of a large collection of Arthurian legends called <span class=SpellE><i>Morte</i></span><i> <span class=SpellE>d Arthur</span></i>. / <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Michelangelo</span> <span class=SpellE>Buonarotti</span> (1475 1564), Italian poet, painter, sculptor and architect. / William <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Morris</span> (1834 1896), English poet and painter. / Alfred de <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Musset</span> (1810 1857), French poet and dramatist. / <span style='font-variant:small-caps; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Ossian</span>, legendary Irish bard of the third century <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>a.d.</span></span>, presented by James Macpherson (1736 1796) as the author of <i>Fingal</i> and <span class=SpellE><i>Temora</i></span>, pseudo-Celtic poems which Macpherson claimed to have translated from Celtic originals. / Edgar Allen <span style='font-variant: small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Poe</span> (<i>c</i>. 1809 1849), American short-story writer. / Mario <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant: small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Praz</span></span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'> </span>(1896 1982), <span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Italian essayist and literary critic, author of </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Romantic Agony</i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> (</span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>La carne, la <span class=SpellE>morte</span> e <span class=SpellE>il</span> <span class=SpellE>diavolo</span> <span class=SpellE>nella</span> <span class=SpellE>literatura</span> <span class=SpellE>romantica</span></i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>, 1930).</span> / Marcel <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Proust</span> (1871 1922), French writer, author of <i> la <span class=SpellE>recherche</span> du temps perdu</i>. / Ann <span style='font-variant: small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Radcliffe</span> (1764 1823), English writer of  Gothic novels, i.e. romantic thrillers fashionable in the late 18th century. / Edmond <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Rostand</span> (1868 1918), French poet and dramatist, author of <i>Cyrano de Bergerac</i>. / Denis de <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Rougemont</span> (1906 1985), Swiss Francophone writer, author of <span class=SpellE><i>L Amour</i></span><i> et <span class=SpellE>l Occident</span></i>. / Jean-Jacques <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Rousseau</span> (1712 1778), French writer and philosopher. / Percy Bysshe <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Shelley</span> (1792 1822), English poet, author of <i>Prometheus Unbound</i> and <i>Ode to the West Wind</i>. / <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Sophocles</span> (<i>c</i>. 496 406 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span>.</span>), ancient Greek dramatist (tragedian). / Edmund <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Spenser</span> (<i>c</i>. 1552 1599), English poet, author of <i>The Faerie <span class=SpellE>Queene</span></i>. / James <span style='font-variant: small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Stephens</span> (1882 1952), Irish writer and poet, author of <i>The Crock of Gold</i>. / <span class=SpellE>Torquato</span> <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Tasso</span> (1544 1595), Italian poet, author of <i>La <span class=SpellE>Gerusalemme</span> <span class=SpellE>liberata</span></i>. / Alfred de <span style='font-variant: small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Vigny</span> (1797 1863), French poet, novelist and dramatist. / Richard <span style='font-variant:small-caps; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Wagner</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> </span>(1813 1883), German opera composer whose <i>Tristan und Isolde</i> was first performed in 1865. / The <span class=SpellE><i><span style='font-variant: small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Werther</span></i></span>: German sentimental short novel (1774) by Goethe (see above). / Walter <span style='font-variant:small-caps;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Whitman</span> (1819 1892), American poet.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>perilous seas and faerie lands forlorn</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;John Keats,  Ode to a Nightingale (1819).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Maeterlinck</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Maurice Maeterlinck (1862 1959), Belgian Francophone poet and dramatist of the  Symbolist school in literature; author of <span class=SpellE><i>Pellas</i></span><i> et <span class=SpellE>Mlisande</span></i> (which served as the basis of an opera by the French composer Claude Debussy).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Yeats</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : William Butler Yeats (1865 1939), Irish poet and dramatist.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>false <span class=SpellE>Florimels</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In <i>The Faerie <span class=SpellE>Queene</span> </i>(1596), the unfinished long poem by Edmund Spenser, <span class=SpellE>Florimell</span> is a modest and beautiful maiden who succeeds in keeping all men with <span class=SpellE>dishonourable</span> intentions at a distance. The mother of one of these provides her son with a  false <span class=SpellE>Florimell</span>  who is an easy prey to him and others (see below, fourth epigraph for Book Two). Later the real <span class=SpellE>Florimell</span>, now married to a worthy lover, is at last brought face to face with the false <span class=SpellE>Florimell</span> who, as a result,  <span class=SpellE>vanisht</span> into <span class=SpellE>nought</span> (<i>F.Q.</i> V.3, 24 ff.). See also Lewis on Spenser in his <i>History of English Literature in the Sixteenth Century</i>, p. 382 ( The false <span class=SpellE>Florimell</span> attracts by being like the true, the true <span class=SpellE>Florimell</span> by being like Beauty itself. ).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Arthur Conan Doyle</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;English writer (1959 1930), chiefly known for his detective stories featuring Sherlock Holmes. After his son was killed in action during the First World War, he got increasingly immersed in spiritualism. This resulted in books like <i>A History of Spiritualism</i> (1926).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the Blue Flower</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;A symbol of romantic longing in the novel <i>Heinrich von <span class=SpellE>Ofterdingen</span></i> (1802) by the German writer <span class=SpellE>Novalis</span> (Friedrich von Hardenberg, 1772 1801).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>our America, our New-found-land</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;John Donne (1572 1631), Elegy XX,  To His Mistress Going to Bed .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>The Well at the World s End</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Fantasy story by William Morris, published posthumously in 1896.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Kubla</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Khan</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Unfinished poem by Coleridge, published in 1816 but allegedly written in 1797 after he composed it, as Coleridge said, in his sleep. Having written fifty-four lines he was interrupted for some business, after which the rest of the poem had vanished from his memory and never came back.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the Siege Perilous</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;A chair at King Arthur s Round Table which was strictly reserved for the man who found  the Grail . The image returns in chapter VIII/10.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 3.0pt;margin-left:85.1pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>if nature makes nothing in vain</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : In a letter of 29 April 1943 Lewis refers to this maxim in Latin, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Natura nil <span class=SpellE>agit</span> <span class=SpellE>frustra</span></i>, calling it  a sound principle in philosophy (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters</i> II, p. 570). One very likely source is Thomas Browne, <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Religio</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> Medici</i> (1642), First Part, section XV (p. 17 in the Everyman edition of 1906):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:113.45pt;text-indent:-14.2pt'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Natura nihil <span class=SpellE>agit</span> <span class=SpellE>frustra</span></span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>, is the only <span class=SpellE>indisputed</span> <span class=SpellE>Axiome</span> in Philosophy.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Walter Hooper mentions this source in a note to the letter, translating the maxim as  Nature does nothing in vain  which is more accurate than Lewis s  Nature <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>makes</i> etc.<br> <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>An almost equally likely source is a passage in Isaac Newton s <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Philosophiae</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> <span class=SpellE>naturalis</span> principia <span class=SpellE>mathematica</span></i>, second edition (1713), p. 357, as quoted by James Jeans in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Mysterious Universe</i> (1930), chapter 4 (p. 83 in the Cambridge U.P. edition of 1948). The passage in Newton s work appears at the beginning of Book III, where a set of  Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy is given. The original Latin is quoted in English by Jeans as follows:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:3.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:115%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Rule</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> I. We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances.  To this purpose the philosophers say that Nature does nothing in vain, and more is in vain when less will serve; for Nature is pleased with simplicity, and affects not the pomp of superfluous causes.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;layout-grid-mode: line'> </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>immortal longings </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;See note on this phrase in chapter V/4.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>The Criterion</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;English literary journal (1922 1939) edited by T. S. Eliot. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>One of them described Romanticism as <span style='layout-grid-mode:line'> </span>spilled religion </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;A reference to the English poet, essayist and philosopher T. E. <span class=SpellE>Hulme</span> (1883 1917) in his lecture <span style='layout-grid-mode:line'> </span>Romanticism and Classicism , written ca. 1911 and published in <i>Speculations</i> (1924, ed. Herbert Read). <span style='layout-grid-mode:line'> </span>You don t believe in Heaven, so you begin to believe in a heaven on earth. (...) The concepts that are right and proper in their own sphere are spread over, and so mess up, falsify and blur the clear outlines of human experience. It is like pouring a pot of treacle over the dinner table. Romanticism then, and this is the best definition I can give of it, is spilt religion (<i>Speculations</i>, p. 118).  A character perhaps representing <span class=SpellE>Hulme</span> appears as one of Lewis s  three pale men in chapter VI/2, below.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Scaliger</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484 1558), Italian humanist and doctor of medicine, whose writings include <span class=SpellE><i>Poetices</i></span><i> <span class=SpellE>libri</span> VII</i> ( Seven Books on Poetics ).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Maenad</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;i.e. through sensual pleasures.  Maenad is another word for Bacchante, a priestess of Bacchus (Greek: Dionysus), the god of vine, wine and mystic ecstasy.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Mystagogue</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;i.e. through arousing your curiosity about mysteries and your desire to be initiated in them. </span><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>A <span class=SpellE>mystagogue</span> (from Greek: </span><span class=SpellE></span><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>  person who initiates into mysteries ) is a person who initiates others into mystic beliefs.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Drive out the bondmaid s son </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Genesis XXI.10, where Sarah suggests that Abraham should chase away his Egyptian slave Hagar and her son.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;layout-grid-mode: line'> Quench not the smoking flax</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Isaiah XLII.3 and XLIII.17.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>praeparatio</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>evangelica</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>(Latin)  Preparation for the Gospel ; title of a book of Christian apologetics by the early Christian author and church historian Eusebius of Caesarea (<i>c</i>. 265 339 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>a.d.</span></span>). Eusebius tried in this book to show why the religion of the Jews was preferable to that of the Greeks. In an unfinished work called <span class=SpellE><i>Demonstratio</i></span><i> <span class=SpellE>evangelica</span></i> he went on to explain why Christianity had meanwhile supplanted the Jewish religion.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;layout-grid-mode: line'>tearing each other to pieces on the Don</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Lewis is referring to the battle of Stalingrad (August 1942 February 1943) and its aftermath, when the advance of German armies in southern Russia began to turn into their slow and devastating retreat. The Don is the great Russian river which, on the latitude of Stalingrad (now Volgograd), is not very far to the west of that city. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> the heresies that men leave are hated most </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Slightly misquoted from Shakespeare, <i>A Midsummer Night s Dream</i> II.2, 139 140, Lysander to Hermia:  ...the heresies that men do leave / Are hated most of those they did deceive . In his later autobiographical book, <i>Surprised by Joy</i> (1955), chapter XIV, Lewis used the same (<span class=SpellE>mis</span>)quotation, ascribing it to John Donne.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Prohibition</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;The years 1920 1933 as a period in the history of the United States of America, when there was an official ban on </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> the sale, production, importation, and transportation of alcoholic beverages </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> (18th Amendment to the Constitution)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>hearken to the over-wise or to the over-foolish giant</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;John Keats (1795 1821), <i>Hyperion: A Fragment </i>(1820) II, 309 310:  Or shall we listen to the over-wise, / Or to the over-foolish giant, Gods? <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>at once rational and animal</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A reference to the Latin phrase <i>animal rationale</i>  a well-known definition of  a human in some ancient and medieval philosophers including Seneca and St Thomas Aquinas.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>when allegory is at its best, is approaches myth</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>cf. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The</i> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Allegory of Love</i>, V.1, p. 221, discussing the conclusion of John Gower s <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Confessio</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> <span class=SpellE>Amantis</span></i>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>We have here one of those rare passages in which medieval allegory rises to myth, in which the symbols, though fashioned to represent mere single concepts, take on new life and represent rather the principles  not otherwise accessible  which unite whole classes of concepts. All is shot through with meanings which the author may never have been aware of; and, on this level, it does not matter whether he was or not.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;line-height:125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>and VI.6, p. 269, on Lydgate s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pilgrimage of Man</i>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt;line-height:125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Nothing is easier or more vulgar than to make allegories, if we are content with purely conceptual equivalences and do not care whether the product will satisfy imagination as well.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><o:p></o:p></b></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:3.0cm;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height:125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Jakob</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Boehme or <span class=SpellE>Behmen</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;German mystical writer (1575 1624); variant spellings of his name also include <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Bhm</span></span> or (now usual) <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Bhme</span></span>. In a letter of 5 January 1930, Lewis mentioned what seemed to him at the time a momentous experience while reading <span class=SpellE>Bhme s</span> book <i>The Signature of All Things</i> (i.e. an English translation of <i>De <span class=SpellE>signatura</span> <span class=SpellE>rerum</span>, <span class=SpellE>oder</span> Von der <span class=SpellE>Geburt</span> und <span class=SpellE>Bezeichnung</span> <span class=SpellE>aller</span> <span class=SpellE>Wesen</span></i>, published in 1621). His early enthusiasm appears to have cooled down pretty soon: Lewis was hardly ever to mention <span class=SpellE>Bhme</span> again in any of his later books or letters. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>in Trine-land one feels  in tune with the infinite </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;A reference to the American popular mystical writer Ralph Waldo Trine (1866 1952) and his best-selling book <i>In Tune with the Infinite </i>(1897).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Book One, THE DATA<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Epigraphs</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Plato</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><i>The Republic</i> (<span class=SpellE><i>Politeia</i></span>) VI, 505e.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Boethius</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<i>The Consolation of Philosophy</i> (<i>De <span class=SpellE>consolatione</span> <span class=SpellE>philosophiae</span></i>) III.2/p, by the Roman philosopher and statesman <span class=SpellE>Ancius</span> Manlius <span class=SpellE>Torquatus</span> Severinus Boethius (480 526 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>a.d</span>.</span>)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Hooker</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Of the Lawes of Ecclesiastical <span class=SpellE>Politie</span></i> (1594) I (p. 205 in the Dent edition), by English theologian Richard Hooker (1554 1600).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter I/1, The Rules</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>pull up the primroses by handfuls</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : Cf. George Macdonald in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Seaboard Parish</i>, as quoted by Lewis in his <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Macdonald Anthology</i> (1946), <span class=SpellE>Nr</span>. 285 (last lines):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:99.25pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>... The flower is not its loveliness, and its loveliness we must love, else we shall only treat them as flower-greedy children, who gather and gather, and fill hands and baskets from a mere desire of acquisition.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>In his preface to the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Anthology</i> Lewis marked this item out as  particularly admirable ... All romantics are vividly aware of mutability, but most of them are content to bewail it: for Macdonald this nostalgia is merely the starting point  he goes on and discovers what it was made for. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter I/2,&nbsp; The Island</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>the other Law in his members</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp; From the New Testament, Paul s Epistle to the Romans VII.23.  But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Oreads</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Generic name for mountain nymphs in ancient Greek popular belief. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter I/4,&nbsp;</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> <b>Leah for Rachel</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Leah for Rachel</span></i></b><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>(cf. II/5) : &nbsp;A reference to the Old Testament story of Jacob and his uncle Laban, Genesis XXIX. Leah and Rachel are Laban s two daughters; Rachel is the younger one, and beautiful. Jacob loves her and he offers to  serve Laban for seven years in exchange for Rachel. After these seven years and after his first night with his wife, Jacob finds that he has been given not Rachel but Leah. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>brown girl</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Roger <span class=SpellE>Lancelyn</span> Green, a friend and biographer of C. S. Lewis, has suggested that the  brown girls in this book might go back to a dream which Lewis recorded in his diary on 26 April 1922 (<i>C. S. Lewis at the Breakfast Table and other reminiscences</i>, ed. James Como, new edition, p. 213). In the published selection from that diary, <i>All My Road Before Me</i> (ed. Walter Hooper, 1991) this passage has not been included; nor did Green give the correct date. The original entry for 26 August (not April) 1922 begins as follows: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:115%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.1pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> I dreamed that W[<span class=SpellE>arnie</span>] and I were being entertained in a palace which I called  Malvern and some sort of old boy s festival was in progress. At the point at which I begin to remember things this had gone on already for a long time and we were being ticked off for some <span class=SpellE>misbehaviour</span> by a very stately woman who forbade us henceforth to speak to the boys. From her I turned alone and went down a flight of steps into a bathroom  a beautiful place with innumerable basins whose marble floor, green veined like the deep sea, could be seen spread out from the top of the stairs. This led out into a place on the banks of the Thames near <span class=SpellE>Iffley</span> where a sort of regatta was going on. The next thing I remember was coming back from this to  Malvern . On the way up I met a big cart, driven by a girl who had no clothes on. She had very light brown hair: but dark skin, pink brown, like sand. I smiled at her in the confidential way you might smile at a girl when you d seen a hole in her stocking and she smiled back in just the same way, as much as to say  Yes I know. Isn t it a scream. Then I went up back to Malvern and woke up  having seen the girl again, this time in the distance beyond the river, with other people in the cart. W and I did most of our packing before breakfast... (etc., as printed in <i>All My Road Before Me</i>).</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter I/5,&nbsp; Ichabod</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Ichabod</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> (cf. II/6) : &nbsp;(Hebrew)  The glory is departed ; from the Old Testament story in<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>I&nbsp;Samuel IV.21 22. The wife of <span class=SpellE>Pinehas</span> just turned widow calls her newborn child  Ichabod because the Ark of God  a portable sanctuary  has been taken by Israel s enemies and because her husband as well as her father in law have died. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter I/6,&nbsp; <span class=SpellE>Quem</span> <span class=SpellE>quaeritis</span> in <span class=SpellE>sepulchro</span>? </span></b><b><span lang=FR style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Non est hic</span></b><span lang=FR style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=FR style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Quem <span class=SpellE>quaeritis</span> in <span class=SpellE>sepulchro</span>? </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Non <span class=SpellE>est</span> hic</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> (cf. II/7) : &nbsp;(Latin)  Whom do you seek in the grave? He is not here. From the Latin liturgy for Easter, based on Luke XXIV.5 6, <i>Quid <span class=SpellE>quaeritis</span> <span class=SpellE>viventem</span> cum <span class=SpellE>mortuis</span>? non <span class=SpellE>est</span> hic</i>  <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span> Why seek ye the living among the dead? He is not here. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Book Two,&nbsp; THRILL<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Epigraphs</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Exodus</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;The second of the Ten Commandments, Exodus XX.4.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Plato</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Second Epistle, 312e 313a; a letter addressed to Dionysius, the ruler of Syracuse, who was puzzled by what Plato called the Idea of the Good.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Dante</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Purgatory </i>(<span class=SpellE><i>Purgatorio</i></span>, second part of Dante Alighieri s <i>Divina Commedia</i>) XVIII, 38 39. <i>Ma non <span class=SpellE>ciascun</span> segno / <span class=SpellE>buono</span>, <span class=SpellE>ancor</span> <span class=SpellE>che</span> <span class=SpellE>buona</span> <span class=SpellE>sia</span> la <span class=SpellE>cera</span></i>,  But every seal is not a good one, even if imprinted in good wax (Robert Hollander s translation). Lewis s version is probably his own, and in any case very free.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Spenser</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<i>The Faerie <span class=SpellE>Queene</span></i> III.8. For the background to this passage see the note on  false <span class=SpellE>Florimels</span> in the Preface, above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter II/1,&nbsp; Dixit <span class=SpellE>insipiens</span></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Dixit <span class=SpellE>insipiens</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>(Latin)  The fool hath said... Psalm XIV.1 and LIII.1. <i>Dixit <span class=SpellE>insipiens</span> in <span class=SpellE>corde</span> <span class=SpellE>suo</span>: Non <span class=SpellE>est</span> Deus</i>,  The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Going West, perhaps, young man?</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;From a famous phrase   go West, young man, go West!  in the writing of Horace Greeley (1811 1872). Greeley was an American journalist and social reformer, and founder of the <i>New York Tribune</i>. He seems to have borrowed the phrase from a fellow American journalist, John Soule (1815 1872) of the <i>Terre Haute Express</i> (Indiana, 1851).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Mr. Enlightenment</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;The chapter headline calls him a personification of  Nineteenth Century Rationalism although the Enlightenment in a strictly historical sense is the name of an eighteenth-century movement. Apparently Lewis was thinking of  enlightenment in a slightly broader sense which includes its direct spiritual heirs.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>round as an orange</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Probably borrowed from E. Nesbit s <i>Five Children  and It</i> (1902), chapter I:  Grown-up people find it very difficult to believe really wonderful things, unless they have what they call proof. But children will believe almost anything, and grown-ups know this. This is why they tell you that the earth is round like an orange, when you see perfectly well that it is flat and lumpy. Lewis quoted this in a letter to his father of 30 October 1930 (<i>Collected Letters</i> I, p. 680) as he was complaining about popular distortions of Darwin s theory of evolution:  The infants seem to be taught that  in the beginning was the Ape from whom all other life developed...<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Claptrap</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;A word coined in the eighteenth century to denote <i>fashionable </i>nonsense, contrived to elicit applause (as distinguished from nonsense in general).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter II/2,&nbsp; The Hill</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Jehovah-<span class=SpellE>Jirah</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(Hebrew)  The <span style='font-variant:small-caps'>Lord</span> will provide , Genesis XXII.14.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Abraham was  tempted by God with a command to sacrifice his son Isaac. On their way to the appointed place, Abraham tells Isaac that  God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering. Just in time  the angel of the <span style='font-variant: small-caps'>Lord </span>intervenes and keeps Abraham from killing Isaac.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Abraham then finds  a ram caught in a thicket , which he offers instead of his son;  and Abraham called the name of that place Jehovah-<span class=SpellE>jireh</span>. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter II/3,&nbsp; A Little Southward</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>To travel hopefully is better than to arrive</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Robert Louis Stevenson, <span class=SpellE><i>Virginibus</i></span><i> <span class=SpellE>Puerisque</span></i> (1881),  El Dorado ;  ...to travel hopefully is a better thing than to arrive, and the true success is to <span class=SpellE>labour</span>. Lewis criticized this assertion in several places, e.g. a letter of 28 August 1930 to Arthur Greeves (<i>Collected Letters</i> I, p. 931). He also used it in <i>The Great Divorce</i>, chapter 5, where it is put in the mouth of a very different character, the  Episcopal Ghost .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter II/5,&nbsp; Leah for Rachel</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>they told you that the <span class=SpellE>the</span> Landlord s castle was within you</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : cf. Luke 17:21,  Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the <span class=SpellE>kindgom</span> of God is within you. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>What is truth?</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Gospel according to St John XVIII.38.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>What the imagination seizes as beauty must be truth</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>From a letter of John Keats dated 22 November 1817.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter II/6,&nbsp; Ichabod</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <i>But oh, alas! said he, </i> <i>so long our bodies why do we forbear?</i> <i>etc</i></span></b><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>.</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>John Donne,  The <span class=SpellE>Exstasie</span> , 49ff and 68.  But O alas, so long, so <span class=SpellE>farre</span>, / Our bodies why doe wee <span class=SpellE>forbeare</span>? / They re ours, though <span class=SpellE>they are</span> not wee, Wee are / <span class=SpellE>Th intelligences</span>, they the <span class=SpellE>spheare</span>. (...) So must pure lovers <span class=SpellE>soules</span> descend / <span class=SpellE>T affections</span>, and to faculties, / That sense may reach and apprehend, / Else a great Prince in prison lies. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter II/7,&nbsp; Non <span class=SpellE>est</span> Hic</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Eschropolis</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;In an unpublished letter of 27 December 1943 Lewis to a Miss Barrett Lewis explains the Greek name:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:127.6pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Eschropolis</span></i></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> = <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aischropolis</i></span> from </span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%'><span class=SpellE></span></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> ugly, and </span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%'><span class=SpellE></span></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> a city.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter II/8,&nbsp; Great Promises</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Atalanta</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;A figure in ancient Greek mythology, daughter of a Boeotian king. She excelled in foot races and would only marry the man who could outrun her. The man who finally did so was <span class=SpellE>Melanion</span>, a <span class=SpellE>favourite</span> of Aphrodite, the goddess of love.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Book Three,&nbsp; THROUGH DARKEST ZEITGEISTHEIM<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Title</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Through Darkest</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>...</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Titles, headings, captions etc. like this perhaps got their currency in English after Sir Henry Stanley s two African travel books, <i>Through the Dark Continent</i> (1878) and <i>In Darkest Africa</i> (1890) and after William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, had been the first to respond to this with his own book called <i>Through Darkest England and How to Get Out</i> (1890).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Zeitgeistheim</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;A German word probably coined for this occasion. In the Preface, Lewis translates it as  habitat of the Spirit of the Age (<span class=SpellE><i>Zeit</i></span> = time, <i>Geist</i> = spirit, <i>Heim</i> = home or abode).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Epigraphs</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Thucydides</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<i>History of the Peloponnesian War</i> (<span class=SpellE><i>Historiae</i></span>) III.82 83 by the Greek historian Thucydides (<i>c</i>. 460 <i>c</i>. 395 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c.</span></span>) of Athens.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Anon.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<b>??</b><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Source not found. These lines may be Lewis s own translation of some Anglo-Saxon or Old Norse poetry, of the same character as the Edda fragments in chapter VI/6 or as the Guide s directions at the beginning of chapter X/8. The most conspicuous formal characteristic of this type of poetry is alliteration.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Shaw</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span> Apparent Anachronisms , note to <i>Caesar and Cleopatra</i> (1901) by George Bernard Shaw (1856 1950), English dramatist.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter III/1,&nbsp; <span class=SpellE>Eschropolis</span></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Silly Twenties</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> (chapter headline) : &nbsp;The tags in this and the next two chapter headlines  <i>Silly</i>,<i> Dirty</i> and <i>Lunatic</i> <i>Twenties</i>  possibly had some currency when Lewis wrote this, in the early 1930s; more likely they are inventions of his own. Still in use is another phrase, <i>Roaring Twenties</i>; but this seems to have exclusively American connotations and not to refer to artistic and cultural trends in Europe.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Victoriana</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;In a letter of 1945 (<i>Collected Letters</i> II, pp. 678 679) Lewis said this figure was his parody of the English poet Edith Sitwell (1887 1964). He was probably thinking primarily of Sitwell s volume <i>Faade </i>(1922).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>columbine</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Columbine is a stock figure in traditional English  pantomime , a kind of play performed at Christmas time; she is<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>the sweetheart of Harlequin. Since we know from Lewis that  Victoriana was Edith Sitwell (see previous note), the appearance of  a columbine may be taken as an allusion to Edith and <span class=SpellE>Osbert</span> Sitwell s volume of poetry <i>Twentieth-Century Harlequinade</i> (1915). In his 1945 letter Lewis also wrote that he had later come to have a higher regard for Edith Sitwell.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>an aspidistra in a pot</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;The aspidistra became a very popular English houseplant in the late nineteenth century because it was strong enough to survive the fumes from gas lighting. The  cast-iron plant , as it was called, became an almost invariable item of lower middle and lower class English interiors and thus a symbol of the kind of life that was supposed to be going on there.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter III/6,&nbsp; Poisoning the Wells</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>and left John in prison</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;layout-grid-mode:line'> : </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>&nbsp;As appears from two passages in <i>The</i> <i>Allegory of Love</i>, a picture of the <i>Zeitgeist</i> or Spirit of the Age as a sort of prison came quite naturally to Lewis.  If we could be free, for a little, of our own <i>Zeitgeist</i>, we might confess that... (<i>Allegory</i> II.3, p. 61);  Surely to be indulgent to mere fashion in other periods, and merciless to it in our own, is the first step we can make out of the prison of the <i>Zeitgeist</i>? (<i>ibid</i>. III.6, p. 89 90).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter III/8,&nbsp; Parrot Disease</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>imagine eating any of her other secretions</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;layout-grid-mode:line'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>cf. J. B. S. Haldane, <i><a href="http://www.marxists.org/archive/haldane/works/1920s/daedalus.htm"><span style='color:windowtext'>Daedalus</span></a>, or Science and the Future</i>, a paper read to The Heretics, Cambridge, on February 4th, 1923:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:115%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> The chemical or physical inventor is always a Prometheus. There is no great invention, from fire to flying, which has not been hailed as an insult to some god. But if every physical and chemical invention is a <span class=SpellE>blaphemy</span>, every biological invention is a perversion. There is hardly one which, on first being brought to the notice of an observer from any nation which has not previously heard of their existence, would not appear to him as indecent and unnatural. Consider so simple and time-honored a process as the milking of a cow. The milk which should have been an intimate and almost sacramental bond between mother and child is elicited by the deft fingers of a milk-maid, and drunk, cooked, or even allowed to rot into cheese. We have only to imagine ourselves as drinking any of its other secretions, in order to <span class=SpellE>realise</span> the radical indecency of our relation to the cow. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>As appears from Lewis s published diary of 20 February 1924, he read <i>Daedalus</i> on that day and described it as  a diabolical little book, bloodless <span class=SpellE>tho</span> stained with blood. This must be read and digested  or vomited (<i>All My Road Before Me: The Diary of C. S. Lewis, 1922 1927</i>, ed. Walter Hooper, 1991).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>There are two only generally necessary to damnation</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;layout-grid-mode:line'> :</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>&nbsp;&nbsp;Parody on a passage in the Catechism in the <i>Book of Common Prayer </i>of the Anglican Church.  <i>Question</i>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>How many Sacraments hath Christ ordained in his Church? <i>Answer</i>. Two only, as generally necessary to salvation; that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord. ( Two only implies a rejection of the Roman Catholic list of <i>seven</i> Sacraments.)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Book Four,&nbsp; BACK TO THE ROAD<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Epigraph</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Bacon</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Essays</i>,  Of Truth , by the English statesman, philosopher and essayist Francis Bacon (1561 1626); pp. 4 5 in the edition by Richard Foster Jones: <i>Essays, Advancement Of Learning, New Atlantis And Other Pieces</i> (Odyssey Press, New York 1937).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter IV/1,&nbsp; Let Grill be Grill</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Let Grill be Grill</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Spenser, <i>The Faerie <span class=SpellE>Queene</span></i> II.12.87 (conclusion of Book II). Sir <span class=SpellE>Guyon</span> has destroyed the Bower of Bliss of the enchantress <span class=SpellE>Acrasia</span> and liberates her captives, breaking the spell by which they had been turned into beasts. One of them (called Grill) wants to remain a beast  <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:115%'><span class=SpellE><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode: line'>Saide</span></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'> <span class=SpellE>Guyon</span>:  See the mind of beastly man,<br> That hath so soon forgot the excellence<br> Of his creation, when his life began<br> That now he <span class=SpellE>chooseth</span>, with vile difference<br> To be a beast, and <span class=SpellE>lacke</span> intelligence:<br> Let <span class=SpellE>Gryll</span> be <span class=SpellE>Gryll</span>, and have his hoggish mind;<br> But let us hence depart, <span class=SpellE>whilest</span> <span class=SpellE>wether</span> serves and <span class=SpellE>winde</span>. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>No doubt Spenser borrowed the name, <span class=SpellE>Gryll</span>, from an ancient story about one of Odysseus s </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>sailors who, after being liberated from Circe s enchantment, preferred to remain a beast. One notable retelling is by the Greek historian and biographer Plutarch (</span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language: EN-US'>c</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>. AD 46 120</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>) in Book XII of his <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Moralia</i></span>; this is a dialogue of Odysseus, Circe and <span class=SpellE>Gryllus</span> under the title  Beasts are Rational . See <a href="https://ryanfb.github.io/loebolus-data/L406.pdf"><span style='color:windowtext; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>Loeb Classical Library vol. 406</span></a>, pp.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>487-533.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode: line'>psittacosis</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:line'> : &nbsp;Scientific name for parrot fever or parrot disease, an infectious disease of parrots that can be transmitted to humans, in whom it may produce pneumonia.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter IV/2,&nbsp; <span class=SpellE>Archtype</span> and Ectype</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Archtype</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> and Ectype</span></i></b><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>(see also VIII/10) :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span> Original and copy ; concepts presumably borrowed here from John Locke s <i>Essay Concerning Human Understanding</i> (1690) II.30 ( Of Real and Fantastical ideas ) and II.31 ( Of Adequate and Inadequate Ideas ). Greek <span class=SpellE><i>ectypon</i></span> means an impress from a commemorative medal, seal or signet ring.<br> For Lewis s orthography see a passage from his letter of 24 October 1940 to Sister Penelope:  On <span class=SpellE><i>archtypal</i></span><i> </i>or <i>archetypal</i>, note as the first principle of textual criticism in dealing with me that <i>all</i> odd spellings [have no] more interesting explanation than ignorance  now I can t spell! (<i>Collected Letters</i> II, p. 451). Later editions have <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Archetype</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>riddle about the copy and the original</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Lewis s book <i>The Allegory of Love</i> (see note to Title, above) has a long chapter on the thirteenth-century French <i>Roman de la Rose</i>. As he points out in that chapter, the <i>Roman</i> s inevitable  palinode  denunciation of erotic love after all that has been said in its <span class=SpellE>favour</span>  is put into the mouth of the lady Reason; and Reason not only approaches the hero as a rival mistress but hints to an idea expressed more fully in another part of the poem   that courtly love is a <i>mimesis</i> or a parody of which divine love is the <span class=SpellE>archtype</span> (see <i>The</i> <i>Allegory of Love</i> III.5, pp. 147 and 151).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter IV/3,&nbsp; <span class=SpellE><i>Esse</i></span> is <span class=SpellE><i>percipi</i></span></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Esse</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> is <span class=SpellE>percipi</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>(Latin)  To be = to be perceived ; statement by the Irish philosopher Bishop George Berkeley (1685 1753) in his <i>Principles of Human Knowledge</i>,<i> </i>3.  For as to what is said of the absolute existence of unthinking things without any relation to their being perceived, that seems perfectly unintelligible. Their <span class=SpellE>esse</span> is <span class=SpellE>percepi</span>, nor is it possible they should have any existence out of the minds or thinking things which perceive them. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Book Five,&nbsp; THE GRAND CANYON<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Epigraphs</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Pindar</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Pythian Ode X, 29 30, by the ancient Greek lyric poet Pindar (<i>c</i>. 520 <i>c</i>.<i> </i>440 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span>.</span>). Cf. C.&nbsp;S. Lewis s own poem of 1949,  Pindar Sang , in <i>Collected Poems</i> (1994), pp. 29 31.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Aeschylus</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Prometheus Bound (Prometheus <span class=SpellE>desmots</span></i>), 546 551, by the ancient Greek tragedian Aeschylus (524 455 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span>.</span>)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Milton</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Paradise Regained</i> (1671) IV, 309 311.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter V/2,&nbsp;Mother Kirk s Story</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Peccatum</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>Adae</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>(Latin)  The sin of Adam ; theological term derived from the New Testament, Paul s Epistle to the Romans V.12 14, and from St. Augustine s discussion of the subject in <i>The City of God</i> (<i>De <span class=SpellE>civitate</span> Dei</i>) XIV.11 13.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter V/3, The Self-Sufficiency of <span class=SpellE>Vertue</span></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>I must be the captain of my soul and the master of my fate</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;From the last stanza of the poem  <span class=SpellE>Invictus</span> by the English poet William Ernest Henley (1849 1903).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter V/4,&nbsp;Mr. Sensible</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> the philosophy of all sensible men </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> (chapter headline) : &nbsp;Perhaps adapted from the American writer and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803 1882), who wrote  I see that sensible men and conscientious men all over the world were of one religion (<i>Lectures and Biographical Sketches</i>:  the Preacher ).  Another possible source is the novel <i>Endymion</i>, chapter LXXXI, by the British statesman Benjamin Disraeli (1804 1881):   As for that, said <span class=SpellE>Waldenshare</span>,  sensible men are all of the same religion.  Pray, what is that? inquired the Prince.  Sensible men never tell.  There is also an echo here of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Religion of All Good Men</i> (1906) by the Oxford classical scholar H. W. <span class=SpellE>Garrod</span> (1878 1960), briefly referred to in Lewis s 1946 essay  The Decline of Religion .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Hippocrene</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin, from Greek)  Horse spring ; in ancient Greece, a spring on Mount Helicon near the home of the Muses. Its water was thought to engender poetic inspiration and to have gushed forth when the winged horse Pegasus touched his hoof there.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Regum</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>aequabit</span> <span class=SpellE>opes</span> <span class=SpellE>animis</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  equal to a king in the riches of the spirit. Virgil (70 19 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant: small-caps'>b.c</span>.</span>, Roman poet), <i>Georgics</i> IV, 132. With regard not only to the following spate of Latin and Greek quotations coming from Mr. Sensible, but also to Lewis s own writing habits, it may be useful for the reader to be reminded of a passage in a letter from Lewis to Arthur Greeves, this book s dedicatee, written after Greeves had <span class=SpellE>criticised</span> the yet unpublished manuscript. In that letter of 17 December 1932, Lewis began his reply as follows:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:115%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> 1. <i>Quotations</i>. I hadn t <span class=SpellE>realised</span> that they were so numerous as you apparently found them. <span class=SpellE>Mr</span> Sensible, as you rightly saw, is in a separate position; the shower of quotations is part of the character and it wd. be a waste of time to translate them, since the dialogue (I hope) makes it clear that his quotations were always silly and he always missed the point of the authors he quoted. The other ones may be too numerous, and perhaps can be reduced &amp; translated. But not beyond a certain point: for one of the contentions of the book is that the decay of our old classical learning is a <span class=SpellE>contributary</span> cause of atheism (see the chapter on <span class=SpellE>Ignorantia</span>). The quotations at the beginnings of the Books are of course never looked at <span class=SpellE>at</span> all by most readers, so I don t think they matter much. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>thou little <span class=SpellE>knowest</span> that sentence is passed upon thee</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<b>??</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Omnes</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>eodem</span> <span class=SpellE>cogimur</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  We are all being gathered to the same fold. Horace (65 8 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span>.</span>, Roman poet), <i>Odes</i> (<i>Carmina</i>) II.3, 25.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>quo dives <span class=SpellE>Tullus</span> et <span class=SpellE>Ancus</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  whither rich <span class=SpellE>Tullus</span> and <span class=SpellE>Ancus</span>  <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>i.e. the underworld, the land of the dead. Horace, <i>Odes</i> (<i>Carmina</i>) IV.7, 15.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>nullius <span class=SpellE>addictus</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  In no way bound , i.e. not taking sides. Horace, <i>Epistles</i> I.1, 14. <i>Nullius <span class=SpellE>addictus</span> <span class=SpellE>iurare</span> in <span class=SpellE>verba</span> <span class=SpellE>magistri</span></i>   I am not bound to swear by the statement of any authority. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>en</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>dshabille</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(French)  in undress , i.e. informally.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>J aime</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> le <span class=SpellE>jeu</span>, </span></i></b><span class=SpellE><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>l amour</span></i></span><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> ... et la <span class=SpellE>campagne</span>  <span class=SpellE>enfin</span>, tout!</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp; I like games, love, books, music, town and country  everything, in fact! </span><span lang=FR style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Jean de la Fontaine (1621 1695, French <span class=SpellE>poet</span>), <i>Les amours de Psych et de Cupidon</i> I.2.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span><span class=SpellE><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-variant:small-caps;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>n.b</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>.</span></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> some <i>Regress</i> editions have <i>champagne</i> for <span class=SpellE><i>campagne</i></span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>haud</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>equidem</span> <span class=SpellE>invideo</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  I am not envious at all. Virgil, <i>Eclogues</i> (<span class=SpellE><i>Bucolica</i></span>,  pastoral poems ) I, 11. <i>Non <span class=SpellE>equidem</span> <span class=SpellE>invideo</span>, <span class=SpellE>miror</span> <span class=SpellE>magis</span></i>   I am not envious but, rather, surprised. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>You do not insist on my accompanying you? ... Why then I am very willing that your should go!</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :&nbsp;&nbsp;Quoted almost literally from the opening paragraph of James Boswell s <i>Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides </i>(1785):  When I was at <span class=SpellE>Ferney</span>, in 1764, I mentioned our design to Voltaire. He looked at me, as if I had talked of going to the North Pole, and said,  You do not insist on my accompanying you? <i> </i> No, sir. <i> </i> Then I am very willing that you should go.  <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Caelum non <span class=SpellE>animum</span> <span class=SpellE>mutamus</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  [Crossing the sea] we change the scenery, not ourselves. </span><span class=SpellE><span lang=FR style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language: NL'>After</span></span><span lang=FR style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Horace, <span class=SpellE><i>Epistles</i></span> I.11, 27. <span class=SpellE><i>Caelum</i></span><i> non <span class=SpellE>animum</span> mutant qui <span class=SpellE>trans</span> mare <span class=SpellE>currunt</span></i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>immortal longings</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;After Shakespeare, <i>Antony and Cleopatra</i> V.2, 283.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Et ego in Arcadia</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>(Latin)  I too [have been] in Arcadia. Correctly phrased <i>Et in Arcadia Ego</i>, this saying of uncertain provenance is found on numerous tombs and also on paintings in which tombs are seen. Art historian Erwin </span><span class=SpellE><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Panovsky</span></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 13.5pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> has traced its origins back to a painting by <span class=SpellE>Guercino</span> (1591 1666) where it has the grammatically proper meaning,  even in Arcadia am I [=Death] , through its history of misunderstanding in art and literature as  I too have been in Arcadia [a lovely place of fabled peace and innocence; therefore I also am an idealist] . Lewis has shuffled the word order so that it can properly have the latter meaning, which is <span class=SpellE>Mr</span> <span class=SpellE>Sensible s</span>.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>monochronos</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>hdon</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Greek)  fleeting pleasure .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the proper study of mankind is man</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>:&nbsp;&nbsp;Alexander Pope (1688 1744), <i>An Essay on Man</i> II, 2.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Eadem</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>sunt</span> <span class=SpellE>omnia</span> semper</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  Everything is always the same . </span><span lang=FR style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Lucretius (Roman <span class=SpellE>poet</span> and philosopher, <i>c</i>. 95 55 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span></span>.), <i>De <span class=SpellE>rerum</span> <span class=SpellE>natura</span></i> III, 949.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>the unchanging heart beneath the shifting disguises</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Cf. Lewis s <i>Preface to Paradise Lost</i> (1943) IX,  The Doctrine of the Unchanging Human Heart , where he argues that in reading the literature of other times and places, we will <i>not</i> grow in wisdom as long as we are chiefly interested in what is the same everywhere in humanity.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>the reasonableness which I commend</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp; Reasonableness is a characteristic item in the vocabulary of the English poet and critic Matthew Arnold (1822 1888), especially in the collocation  sweet reasonableness .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>le bon <span class=SpellE>sens</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(French)  common sense .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>bridewell</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp; jail (from a London prison called <span class=SpellE>Bridewell</span>).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Auream</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>quisquis</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin) A scrap from Horace, <i>Odes</i> (<i>Carmina</i>) II.10, 5. <span class=SpellE><i>Auream</i></span><i> <span class=SpellE>quisquis</span> <span class=SpellE>mediocritatem</span> <span class=SpellE>diligit</span></i>   The man who cherishes the golden mean. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>the doctrine of the Mean</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;See Aristotle s <i>Nicomachean Ethics</i> II.6 and II.8 (1107a, 1108b). No triangle is mentioned there; but this example could be the way this doctrine used to be explained in Lewis s/<span class=SpellE>Vertue s</span> school days. A virtue (says Aristotle) is like a point at equal distances from two opposed vices: e.g. courage is a point exactly between cowardice and recklessness. But cowards will call courageous people reckless, and reckless people will call them cowards. Whoever wants to practice virtue ought therefore not just to seek this middle point but to try and get even further away from both vicious extremes. This is (says <span class=SpellE>Vertue</span>) as if you start from a middle point on such a line but then decide to treat them as two corners of a triangle where you seek the third, hoping that it will be further away from the other two corners than they are from each other.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Philosophy should be our mistress</span></i></b><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>: In a letter of 28 June 1936 to Owen Barfield (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collected Letters </i>II, 198-199), Lewis confessed himself unable to continue their philosophical debates of the 1920s because, as he notes,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:115%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>When a truth has ceased to be a mistress for pleasure and become a wife for fruit it is almost unnatural to go back to the dialectic <span class=SpellE>ardours</span> of the wooing. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Lewis was obviously alluding here to a passage in Francis Bacon s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Advancement of Learning</i> (1605), Book 1, <span class=SpellE>ch.</span> V/11. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:115%;tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Neither is my meaning, as was spoken of Socrates, to call philosophy</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>down from heaven to converse upon the earth  that is, to leave</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>natural philosophy aside, and to apply knowledge only to manners and</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>policy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But as both heaven and earth do conspire and contribute to</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the use and benefit of man, so the end ought to be, from both</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>philosophies to separate and reject vain speculations, and</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>whatsoever is empty and void, and to preserve and augment whatsoever</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>is solid and fruitful; that knowledge may not be as a courtesan, for</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>pleasure and vanity only, or as a bond-woman, to acquire and gain to</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>her master</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>s use; but as a spouse, for generation, fruit, and</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>comfort.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Lewis explicitly referred to this passage in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Abolition of Man </i>(1943), chapter 3, commenting that <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:110%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:110%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>... Bacon condemns those who value knowledge as an end in itself: this, for him, is to use as a mistress for pleasure what ought to be a spouse for fruit. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the bit about thinking mortal thoughts</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : See Aristotle s <i>Nicomachean Ethics</i> X.7 (1177b), where Euripides and <span class=SpellE>Pindarus</span> are quoted.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:110%'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:110%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Do <span class=SpellE>manus</span>!</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:110%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  I give up! <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>que sais-je?</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(French)  What do I know? Motto of the French writer Michel de Montaigne (1533 1592), engraved on his personal seal.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>brown charm</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp; brown as in  brown study ; reverie, mood of deep absorption or thoughtfulness.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter V/5,&nbsp; Table Talk</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> the religion of all sensible men </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> (chapter headline) : See first note to previous chapter.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Dapibus</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>mensas</span> <span class=SpellE>onerabit</span> <span class=SpellE>inemptis</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  He loaded his table with delicacies not bought at the store. Virgil, <i>Georgics</i> IV, 133 (this line immediately follows the one quoted in the previous chapter, <span class=SpellE><i>Regum</i></span><i> <span class=SpellE>aequabit</span></i> etc.).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'> His humble sauce a radish or an egg </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>William Cowper (1731 1800), <i>The Task</i> IV, 168.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Epicurus</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Greek philosopher (341 270 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c.</span></span>). In his ethical system, Pleasure was the supreme good; the way to reach it was not frenetic search or wild abandon but, on the contrary, wisdom, self-control and careful choice of pleasures.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=FR style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Horace</span></i></b><span lang=FR style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Roman <span class=SpellE>lyrical</span> <span class=SpellE>poet</span> (65 8 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span></span><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>.</span>). </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>He was presented as a great master of classical Latin to many generations of European schoolboys, including Lewis s.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Montaigne</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;The French 16th-century writer mentioned above (V/4, <i>que sais-je?</i>). In his work, with&nbsp; three volumes of <span class=SpellE><i>Essais</i></span> (1588) as its chief part, he shows a lively interest in his own person and a resulting awareness of the dangers both of reason and of imagination.&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Rabelais</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Franois Rabelais (<i>c</i>. 1494 1553), French writer, author of the mock-heroic romances <span class=SpellE><i>Gargantua</i></span> (1532), <i>Pantagruel</i> (1534), and three sequels.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Athanatous</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> men <span class=SpellE>prota</span> <span class=SpellE>Theous</span> <span class=SpellE>nomoi</span> hos <span class=SpellE>diakeitai</span>  </span></i></b><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> <span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Tima</b></span></span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>(Greek)  The most important thing is to <span class=SpellE>honour</span> the gods as is required by law. First line of the <i>Golden Verses</i>, ascribed to the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras (6th century <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span>.</span>).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Cras</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>ingens</span> <span class=SpellE>iterabimus</span> [<span class=SpellE>aequor</span>]</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  Tomorrow we will take up our course again over the huge [sea] . Horace, <i>Odes</i> (<i>Carmina</i>) I.7, 32. The full passage is <i>Nunc vino <span class=SpellE>pellite</span> <span class=SpellE>curas</span>; <span class=SpellE>cras</span> <span class=SpellE>ingens</span> <span class=SpellE>iterabimus</span> <span class=SpellE>aequor</span></i>, where the first half means  With wine now drive away care... <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Pellite</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>cras</span> <span class=SpellE>ingens</span> tum-tum</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>, <span class=SpellE><i>nomoi</i></span><i> hos <span class=SpellE>diakeitai</span></i></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;A drunken mixture of the previous two quotations;  Push off tomorrow on the huge... pom-pom, as is required. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter V/6,&nbsp; Drudge</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chorgia</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(Greek) Defray of expenses; support; subsidy.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>untie two pieces of string with which he had confined his trousers beneath his knees</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : A sign that Drudge is drifting towards  sans-<span class=SpellE>culottism</span> , i.e. revolutionary extremism. </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Sans <span class=SpellE>culotte</span></span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> is French for  without knee-breeches . During the French Revolution, revolutionaries of the poorer classes tended to wear pantaloons or trousers and so came to be called <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>sans-culottes</i>. In Book VI, chapter 6, it turns out that Drudge went north  to join the red dwarfs .</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter V/7,&nbsp; The Gaucherie of <span class=SpellE>Vertue</span></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>autarkeia</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(Greek) Economic self-sufficiency.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=FR style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Vive la bagatelle</span></i></b><span lang=FR style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp; <span class=SpellE>Hurray</span> for nonsense! </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Laurence Sterne (1713 1768, English novelist), <i><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>A Sentimental Journey</i>,  The Letter .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Thelema</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Greek word for  will in the sense of volition. In the novel <span class=SpellE><i>Gargantua</i></span> by the French author Franois Rabelais (<i>c</i>. 1494 1553), <span class=SpellE>Thlme</span> is the abbey of a highly exceptional kind of religious order  in fact, an anti-order in an anti-abbey  led by Frre Jean des <span class=SpellE>Entommeurs</span>; see <span class=SpellE><i>Gargantua</i></span> (= Book I in <span class=SpellE><i>Gargantua</i></span><i> et Pantagruel</i>) LII et seq.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Do what you will</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Supreme rule of the monastic life at <span class=SpellE>Thlme</span>: <i>Fay <span class=SpellE>ce</span> que <span class=SpellE>vouldras</span></i>; see <span class=SpellE><i>Gargantua</i></span> LVII.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Book Six,&nbsp; NORTHWARD ALONG THE CANYON<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Epigraphs</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Aristotle</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Nicomachean Ethics</i>, 1124b<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Milton</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Paradise Regained</i> VI, 313 314. The passage follows almost immediately on the Milton epigraph for Book V, above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Pascal</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<span class=SpellE><i>Penses</i></span> (1670), No. 353 in the <span class=SpellE>Brunschvicg</span>-edition of 1897 (section VI,  Les philosophes ), by the French philosopher, mathematician and physicist Blaise Pascal (1623 1662). </span><i><span lang=FR style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Je n admire point l excs d une vertu, comme de la valeur, si je ne vois en mme temps l excs de la vertu oppose</span></i><span lang=FR style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:FR;mso-fareast-language:NL'>...<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>I. A. Richards</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Practical Criticism</i> (1929), Poem III, by the English literary critic and linguist Ivor Armstrong Richards (1893 1979).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VI/2,&nbsp;Three Pale Men</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Neo-Angular, Neo-Classical, Humanist</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp; Chad Walsh (1914 1991), an American poet and critic and one of the earliest authoritative writers about C.&nbsp;S. Lewis, considers the three types presented here  transparent disguises of T. S. Eliot (1888 1965), Irving Babbitt (1865 1933) and George Santayana (1863 1952) respectively; see Walsh, <i>The Literary Legacy of C. S. Lewis</i> (1979), pp. 67 68.<br> <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>Another writer on Lewis sees Humanist, Neo-Angular and Neo-Classical<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>as  thin disguises for aspects of Irving Babbitt, Eliot, and perhaps T. E. <span class=SpellE>Hulme</span> ; see Corbin Scott Carnell, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Bright Shadow of Reality: C. S. Lewis and the Feeling Intellect</i> (1974), pp. 129-130. Babbitt thus appears to be a candidate for identification with both Humanist and Neo-Classical. For <span class=SpellE>Hulme</span>, see note on him as quoted in the Preface, above.<br> <span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>Yet another published attempt at identification follows Carnell without the reservation about <span class=SpellE>Hulme</span>, while adding two more candidates for  Humanist , namely Paul Elmer More (1864-1937) and Norman <span class=SpellE>Foerster</span> (1887-1972); see James Patrick s <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Magdalen Metaphysicals: Idealism and Orthodoxy at Oxford, 1901-1945) </i>(1985), pp. 112-113, as referred to in Doris T. Myers, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>C. S. Lewis in Context</i> (1994), p. 19, note 25.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Virtutes</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>paganorum</span> <span class=SpellE>splendida</span> <span class=SpellE>vitia</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  The virtues of the pagans are splendid vices. <b>??</b><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Source not found, but probably either in Augustine (as  <span class=SpellE>virtutes</span><i> <span class=SpellE>gentium</span></i> etc., not  <span class=SpellE>paganorum</span> ) or in Tertullian, <i>De carne Christi</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Epichaerecacia</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Greek) gloating, malicious pleasure, spiteful joy at another s misfortune.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Euphuia</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(Greek) shapeliness; goodness of disposition; quickness of understanding. The male form of this name is (perhaps not very relevantly here) the name of the principal character in a sixteenth-century prose romance, John Lyly s <span class=SpellE><i>Euphues</i></span><i> </i>(1578 1580); the word <i>euphuism</i> was afterwards coined for that book s widely imitated style  its  unremitting use (as Lewis wrote elsewhere) of antithesis, alliteration and allusion.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VI<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>/</i>6,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Furthest North</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Marxomanni</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;In addition to the obvious reference to Marxists, there might be a word-play here on <i>Marcomanni</i>,<i> </i>the name of a Germanic people in the first centuries of the Christian era. The Marcomanni did not, however, live in Northern Europe but in Bohemia, in the area of the present-day Czech Republic.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Wind age, wolf age,</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <i>etc</i>.</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Passages from  The Prophecy of the Volva (<span class=SpellE>Volusp</span>), which is part of the <i>Edda</i>, a collection of mythological Old Norse poems made in the 12th century <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>a.d</span>.</span> The same two fragments, slightly longer, were quoted by J. B. S. Haldane in his essay  The Last Judgment , the final piece in <i>Possible Worlds</i> (1927). Haldane said he preferred the Old Norse picture of the end of the world  <span class=SpellE><i>Ragnark</i></span><i> </i>or  Doom of the <span class=SpellE>Reigners</span>  over the Book of Revelation.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>lots of sub-species besides the <span class=SpellE>Marxomanni</span>  <span class=SpellE>Mussolimini</span>, <span class=SpellE>Swastici</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>... : Lewis was writing this less than two months after the astonishing electoral success of both Nazis and Communists in the German general elections of 31 July 1932. The two parties between them won more than half of the seats in parliament.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Heroism, or Master-Morality, or Violence</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Key concepts in the thought of three respective writers of the 19th century whose work later came to be associated with fascist and national-socialist aggression in the 20th century  English historian Thomas Carlyle (1795 1881), author of <i>On Heroes, Hero Worship and the Heroic in History&nbsp;</i> (1841); German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 1900), author of <span class=SpellE><i>Jenseits</i></span><i> von Gut und <span class=SpellE>Bse</span> </i>(<i>Beyond Good and Evil</i>, 1886) and <span class=SpellE><i>Genealogie</i></span><i> der Moral</i>&nbsp; (, 1887), where he introduced the twin concepts of  master morality , and  slave morality ; French writer Georges Sorel (1847 1922), author of <span class=SpellE><i>Rflexions</i></span><i> sur la violence</i> (1908), spiritual father of anarcho-syndicalism but also an unintentional source of inspiration for Italian fascism.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:8.5pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the last even of the last men</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:8.5pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Cf. Nietzsche, <i>Also <span class=SpellE>sprach</span> Zarathustra</i> (<i>Thus Spoke Zarathustra</i>, 1885), </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Zarathustra s <span class=SpellE>Vorrede</span> , 5, where a sketch is given of <i>der <span class=SpellE>letzte</span> Mensch</i>,  the last man</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:8.5pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> , as the opposite of the <span class=SpellE><i>bermensch</i></span>,<i> </i></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> Superman</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:8.5pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> .</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter<span style='font-variant:small-caps'> </span>VI/7,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Fools Paradise</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>intelligence ... moves nothing</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Cf. Aristotle, <i>Nicomachean Ethics</i> VI.2 (1139a).  Operation of the intellect by itself moves nothing (transl. D.&nbsp;P. Chase, Everyman ed. 1911).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Book Seven,&nbsp; SOUTHWARD ALONG THE CANYON<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Epigraphs</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Virgil</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Aeneid</i> V, 626 635. Spoken by Iris, who, sent by Juno, is trying to talk the wives of the <span class=SpellE>Troyans</span> into burning their ships and so putting an end to the <span class=SpellE>Troyans</span> quest for Italy.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Dante</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Inferno</i> IV, 40 42. <i>Per tai <span class=SpellE>difetti</span>, non per <span class=SpellE>altro</span> <span class=SpellE>rio</span>, / <span class=SpellE>Semo</span> <span class=SpellE>perduti</span>, e sol di <span class=SpellE>tanto</span> <span class=SpellE>offesi</span>, / <span class=SpellE>Che</span> <span class=SpellE>senza</span> <span class=SpellE>speme</span> <span class=SpellE>vivemo</span> in <span class=SpellE>disio</span></i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Bunyan</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<i>The Pilgrim s Progress</i> II (1684), <span class=SpellE>Mr</span> Great-heart speaking to the heroine, Christiana, during their passage through the Valley of Humiliation.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VII/1,&nbsp; <span class=SpellE>Vertue</span> is Sick</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>clouds and wind without rain</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Proverbs XXV.14,  Whoso <span class=SpellE>boasteth</span> himself of a false gift is like clouds and wind without rain. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VII/2,&nbsp; John Leading</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> Sick, wearied out with contrarieties, he yields up moral questions in despair </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> (chapter headline) : &nbsp;William Wordsworth (1770 1850), <i>The Prelude</i> XI, 304 305 (or X, 899 900 in the 1805 edition).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VII/5,&nbsp; Tea on the Lawn</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>wildflowers</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> (chapter headline) : &nbsp;Cf. the first lines of  Auguries of Innocence , a poem of William Blake (1757 1827).  To see a World in a Grain of Sand / And a Heaven in a Wild Flower, / Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand / And Eternity in an hour. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Martha</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Cf. the figure of Martha in the Gospel of St Luke X.38 42. While Jesus visited her home, Martha was  cumbered about much serving and thought her sister Maria was wrong to sit listening to Him and failing to come and help her.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>the language of the heart</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Perhaps after Alexander Pope s <i>Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot, or Prologue to the Satires</i>, 388.  Language<i> </i>of the heart there is not opposed to orthodoxy but to academic learning.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>When I became a man, I put away childish things</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;I Corinthians XIII.11.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>The heaven and the heaven of heavens</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>, etc</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>.</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;From the prayer of King <span class=SpellE>Salomo</span> at the dedication of the Temple, I Kings VIII.27.  But will God indeed dwell on the earth? Behold, the heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain thee; how much the less this house that I have <span class=SpellE>builded</span>? <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VII/8,&nbsp; This Side by Sunlight</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>the Valley of Humiliation</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;An episode in John Bunyan s <i>The Pilgrim s Progress</i> (1678-84), the book that provided Lewis with the title and part of the general idea for <i>The</i> <i>Pilgrim s Regress</i>. Lewis was quoting from the same episode in the third Epigraph to the present Book.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VII/9,&nbsp; Wisdom  Exoteric</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>the manna turned to worms</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Exodus XVI.20.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>as one of my sons has said,</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;layout-grid-mode: line'> <i>that leaves the world more glorious yet</i></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;A reference to a passage in <i>The Principles of Logic</i> (1883) by<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>the English Idealistic philosopher Francis Bradley (mentioned before with Green and Bosanquet in the Preface, second paragraph).  </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.1pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>That the glory of this world (...) is appearance leaves the world more glorious, if we feel it is a show of some fuller <span class=SpellE>splendour</span>; but the sensuous curtain is a deception (...) if it hides some <span class=SpellE>colourless</span> movement of atoms, some (...) unearthly ballet of bloodless categories. </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VII/10, &nbsp; Wisdom  Esoteric</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>hawthorn</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;A reference to the American author Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804 1864) and his short story  <a href="http://www.online-literature.com/hawthorne/158/"><span style='color:windowtext'>Young Goodman Brown</span></a> . The hero of this story goes into a wood by night to attend a Black Mass and is shocked to meet various people there whom he knew as respectable citizens. Hawthorne also wrote a story called<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span> <a href="http://www.online-literature.com/hawthorne/127/"><span style='color:windowtext'>The Celestial Railroad</span></a> which is a parody on Bunyan s <i>Pilgrim s Progress</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Marx, Spencer, etc.</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> (author s footnotes) : &nbsp;Karl <b>Marx</b> (1818 1883), German philosopher; Herbert <b>Spencer</b> (1820 1903), English philosopher who attempted to a theory of evolution (not quite Darwin s) to all phenomena; Baruch <b>Spinoza</b> (1632 1677), Jewish Dutch philosopher; Rudolf <b>Steiner</b> (1861 1925), Austrian social philosopher and founder of Anthroposophy; Immanuel <b>Kant</b> (1724 1804), German philosopher; Bernard <b>Bosanquet</b> (1848 1923), British Idealistic philosopher.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VII/12,&nbsp; More Wisdom</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>all this choir of heaven and furniture of earth are imaginations</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : From the <i>Principles of Human Knowledge</i>, 6, by George Berkeley (1685 1753), the Irish bishop and philosopher who became chiefly known for his  subjective-idealistic theory of knowledge. Cf. note to IV/3 above, on <i> <span class=SpellE>Esse</span> is <span class=SpellE>percipi</span> </i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>I am the Imaginer: I am one of his imaginations</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;See<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>note to VIII/1 on <i> I am the doubter and the doubt </i>, below.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>evangelium</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>eternum</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  Eternal Gospel , i.e. Pantheism.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Book Eight,&nbsp; AT BAY<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Epigraphs</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Hesiod</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Works and Days</i> (<span class=SpellE><i>Erga</i></span><i> kai <span class=SpellE>hmerai</span></i>),<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>293 297, by the ancient Greek didactical poet Hesiod (8th century <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span>.</span>).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Hazlitt</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<i>The Round Table</i> (1817) I.26,  On Classical Education , by the English critic and essayist William Hazlitt (1778 1830).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VIII/1,&nbsp; Two Kinds of Monist</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Monist</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Monism is the doctrine<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>that everything in the universe derives from a single thing or principle, e.g. from spirit or from matter, so that no essential distinction can be made between God and Nature. It is the philosophical counterpart of Pantheism.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>That the glory of this world in the end is appearance, leaves the world more glorious yet</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Another reference to Bradley s <i>Principles of Logic</i>; see note to VII/9 above, <i>as one of my sons has said</i> etc.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>in the Absolute, every flame<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>even of carnal passion burns on</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : Bradley, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>Appearance and Reality</i> (1893), Book II, <span class=SpellE>ch.</span> 15, p. 172:  every flame<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>of passion, chaste or carnal, would still burn in the Absolute, unquenched and unabridged. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>The flesh is but a living corruption</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;After Genesis VI.12,  And God looked upon the earth and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>I am the doubter and the doubt</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;From the sonnet  Brahma by Ralph Waldo Emerson<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>(cf. note to V/4 above).  They reckon ill who leave me out; / When me they fly, I am the wings; / I am the doubter and the doubt, / I am the hymn the Brahmin sings. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>filthy rags</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;A reference to Isaiah LXIV.6, where a more literal reading would be  dirty sanitary towels .  But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our <span class=SpellE>righteousnesses</span> are as filthy rags... <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VIII/3,&nbsp; John Forgets Himself</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>sensuous curtain</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;See the quotation from Bradley in the second note to VII/9 above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VIII/4,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>John Finds his Voice</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Pheidian</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> fancies</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;From <span class=SpellE>Pheidias</span> or Phidias, famous Greek sculptor of the 5th century <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span>.</span>; no extant original can be surely ascribed to him.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VIII/7,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Hermit</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Stoics, <span class=SpellE>Manichees</span>, <span class=SpellE>Spartiates</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<b>Stoics</b> in ancient Greece were members of the school of philosophy founded by Zeno of <span class=SpellE>Citium</span> (<i>c</i>. 335 <i>c</i>. 265 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span>.</span>), holding that virtue and happiness can be attained only by submission to destiny and the natural law; hence the wider meaning of  stoicism as indifference or the attempt at indifference to pleasure and pain.  <span class=SpellE><b>Manichees</b></span> were followers of the Persian prophet Mani (mid-third century <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>a.d</span>.</span>), who supposed good and evil to be equally original and equally strong powers in the universe.  <span class=SpellE><b>Spartiates</b></span> are Spartans, the ruling class in the ancient Greek city state of Sparta; they were famous for their discipline and military prowess and austere way of life.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>better bread than is made of wheat</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A fixed expression for  the best as the enemy of the good ; perhaps originating from the Spanish through a passage in Cervantes s <i>Don Quixote</i>, chapter VII, where the hero is asked by a niece why he won t simply stay at home rather than always going into the world in quest of  better bread than ever is made of wheat. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%;tab-stops:9.0pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>a fox without a tail</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;From one of the Fables ascribed to the semi-legendary Greek author Aesop (6th century <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span>.</span>). A fox lost his tail in a poacher s trap. When all the other animals laughed at him he tried to persuade his fellow foxes that they had better all cut off their tails since life was better that way. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%;tab-stops:9.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%;tab-stops:9.0pt'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VIII/8,&nbsp; History s Words</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%;tab-stops:9.0pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>seen that Island dozens of times in those pictures</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>i.e. in  pictures such as those of the Hesperides in Classical mythology, or of Avalon in <span class=SpellE>Arthruian</span> legend.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%;tab-stops:9.0pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>if the feet have been put right the hands and the head will come right</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Free interpretation of an obscure or at least ambiguous passage in the Gospel of St John, XIII.10.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VIII/9,&nbsp; Matter of Fact</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Medium <span class=SpellE>Aevum</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin) Middle Ages.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>he sent them ... a picture of a Lady!</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <i>Nobody had ever had the idea of a Lady before</i></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;A reference to the rise of  courtly love , i.e. the earliest, medieval variety of romantic love, as described by C. S. Lewis in <i>The Allegory of Love</i>, chapter I.1. For the claim that  nobody had ever had the idea of a Lady before , see <i>Allegory</i>, pp. 4 12 ( There can be no mistake about the novelty of romantic love: our only difficulty is to imagine in all its bareness the mental world that existed before its coming etc.).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>[Dante]</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <i>had carried this new form of the desire right up to its natural</i></span></b><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> conclusion</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;This  natural conclusion is what Lewis in <i>The Allegory of Love</i> called the  noble fusion of sexual and religious experience as achieved by Dante in his <i>Commedia, </i>i.e. <i>The Divine Comedy</i>:  there, at least, the quarrel between Christianity and the love religion was made up (<i>Allegory</i>, pp. 21 and 23).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>Homer in <span class=SpellE>Pagus</span> ridiculing some of the story pictures</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>... : &nbsp;<b>??</b><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Clopinel</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> / Jean de <span class=SpellE>Meung</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Jean de <span class=SpellE>Meung</span> (1250 <i>c</i>.1305), author of the second, by far the largest part of the <i>Roman de la Rose</i>. He had a strong bent of cynical and satirical remarks about women and erotic love. Cf. second note to IV/2 above and <i>The Allegory of Love</i>, pp. 144ff. His nickname <span class=SpellE>Clopinel</span> or <span class=SpellE>Chopinel</span> means  cripple .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter VIII/10,&nbsp; <span class=SpellE>Archtype</span> and <span class=SpellE>Ectypon</span></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>the perilous siege in which only One can sit</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;See note on <i>Siege Perilous</i> in the Preface, above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:7.2pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;layout-grid-mode:line'> out of the soul s bliss, he said,  there shall be a flowing over into the flesh </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;layout-grid-mode:line'> : &nbsp;a reference to St <span class=SpellE>Augustine Epistle</span> CXVIII, to <span class=SpellE>Dioscorus</span>, par. 14:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width=1021 style='width:18.0cm;margin-left:113.45pt;border-collapse:collapse;border:none; mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh: none;mso-border-insidev:none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'> <td width=454 valign=top style='width:226.75pt;padding:0cm 8.5pt 0cm 0cm'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:0cm;line-height:115%;mso-pagination:none;mso-hyphenate: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:115%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Tam <span class=SpellE>potenti</span> <span class=SpellE>enim</span> <span class=SpellE>natura</span> Deus <span class=SpellE>fecit</span> <span class=SpellE>animam</span>, <span class=SpellE>ut</span> ex <span class=SpellE>ejus</span> <span class=SpellE>plenissima</span> <span class=SpellE>beatitudine</span> quae in fine temporum <span class=SpellE>sanctis</span> <span class=SpellE>promittitur</span>, <span class=SpellE>redundet</span> <span class=SpellE>etiam</span> in <span class=SpellE>inferiorem</span> <span class=SpellE>naturam</span>, quod <span class=SpellE>est</span> corpus, non <span class=SpellE>beatitudo</span> quae <span class=SpellE>furentis</span> et <span class=SpellE>intelligentis</span> <span class=SpellE>est</span> <span class=SpellE>propria</span>, <span class=SpellE>sed</span> <span class=SpellE>plenitudo</span> <span class=SpellE>sanitatis</span>, id <span class=SpellE>est</span> <span class=SpellE>incorruptionis</span> vigor.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:115%; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=567 valign=top style='width:283.55pt;padding:0cm 8.5pt 0cm 0cm'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:0cm;line-height:115%;mso-pagination:none;mso-hyphenate: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:115%; mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>For God has endowed the soul with a nature so powerful, that from that consummate fullness of joy which is promised to the saints in the end of time, some portion overflows also upon the lower part of our nature, the body  not the blessedness which is proper to the part which enjoys and understands, but the plenitude of health, that is, the <span class=SpellE>vigour</span> of incorruption.</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;line-height:115%; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";letter-spacing:-.15pt;mso-ansi-language: EN-US'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Manna kept, is worms</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;See first note to VII/9 above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>the hermit ...doing and saying his holy things</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;cf. Spenser, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>The Faerie <span class=SpellE>Queene</span></i> I.1.43.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:127.6pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height:125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>A little lowly Hermitage it was,<br> <span class=SpellE>Downe</span> in a dale, hard by a forests side,<br> Far from resort of people, that did pass,<br> In <span class=SpellE>travell</span> to and froe : a little <span class=SpellE>wyde</span><br> There was an holy Chappell <span class=SpellE>edifyde</span>,<br> Wherein the <span class=SpellE>Hermite</span> <span class=SpellE>dewly</span> wont to say<br> His holy things each <span class=SpellE>morne</span> and <span class=SpellE>eventyde</span><br> ...<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Lazarus</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;See Gospel of John XI.1 44.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>the heaven, moved moth-like by thy beauty, etc</span></i></b><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>.</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;This is an expression of the ancient cosmological idea of a  prime mover or  unmoved mover which puts and keeps in motion the outermost, largest celestial sphere (or  heaven ); this in its turn moved the next, etc., down to the last and smallest sphere revolving around the Earth. In medieval Christian and Muslim thought this prime mover was identified with God.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Book Nine,&nbsp; ACROSS THE CANYON<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Epigraphs</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Langland</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Piers the Plowman</i> XIII, 181 185 (C text), a long allegorical poem ascribed to William Langland (<i>c</i>. 1331 <i>c</i>. 1399). Quoted with some slight variations in spelling.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>George Macdonald</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<i>Lilith</i> (1895) XL,  The House of Death , by the Scottish poet, novelist and preacher George Macdonald (1824 1905).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter IX/3,&nbsp; This Side by Darkness</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>prophesied soft things</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;After Isaiah XXX.9 10,  This is a rebellious people (...) which say to the seers, See not; and to the prophets, Prophesy not unto us right things, speak unto us smooth things, prophesy deceits. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>I am no negation</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> :<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Personified Death is here denying a famous assertion by the Greek philosopher Epicurus (341 270 <span class=SpellE><span style='font-variant:small-caps'>b.c</span>.</span>), in his Letter to <span class=SpellE>Menoeceus</span>, explaining why he did not fear death :  Where death is, I am not, and where I am, death is not. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter IX/4,&nbsp; <span class=SpellE>Securus</span> <span class=SpellE>Te</span> <span class=SpellE>Projice</span></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Securus</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>te</span> <span class=SpellE>projice</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  Throw thyself without fear [onto Him; He will hold and will cure thee]. St Augustine, <i>Confessions</i> VIII.11.27. <span class=SpellE><i>Proice</i></span><i> <span class=SpellE>te</span> <span class=SpellE>securus</span>! <span class=SpellE>excipiet</span> et <span class=SpellE>sanabit</span> <span class=SpellE>te</span></i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>you must dive into this water</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp; Must as an inevitability, as appears from <i>George Macdonald: An Anthology</i>, edited by C. S. Lewis (1946), No. 279:  That is the way ... You must throw yourself in. There is no other way. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter IX/5,&nbsp; Across the Canyon</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Semele</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Greek mythological figure, a princess from Thebes. The supreme god Zeus in the shape of a human begot Dionysius by Semele. She wished to see him also in his full divine power and majesty. This was granted, but she did not survive it<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter IX/6,&nbsp; Nella <span class=SpellE>sua</span> <span class=SpellE>Voluntade</span></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Nella <span class=SpellE>sua</span> <span class=SpellE>voluntade</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Italian)  In His will [is our peace]. Dante, <i>Paradiso</i> III, 85. <i>E la <span class=SpellE>sua</span> <span class=SpellE>volontate</span> nostra pace</i>  which in fact means  And His will is our peace. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Slikisteinsauga</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Old Norse, or perhaps pseudo-Old Norse of Lewis s invention)  <span class=SpellE>Sleekstone</span> eyes . When the now obsolete word  <span class=SpellE>sleekstone</span> was still in use, it meant a smooth stone used to make something else smooth, i.e. sleek, by rubbing or polishing it. However, Lewis appears to mean a whetstone rather than a <span class=SpellE>sleekstone</span> (if the two are indeed distinct instruments) :  whetstone-eyes would serve to sharpen other people s eyesight in addition to having sharpness themselves.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Book Ten,&nbsp; THE REGRESS<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Epigraphs</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Plato</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<i>The Republic</i> (<span class=SpellE><i>Politeia</i></span>) VII, 516e 517a.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-variant:small-caps;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Bernardus</span></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>Silvestris</span></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<i>De mundi <span class=SpellE>universitate</span> <span class=SpellE>sive</span> <span class=SpellE>Megacosmus</span> et <span class=SpellE>Microcosmus</span> </i>II.4, 31ff, by <span class=SpellE>Bernardus</span> <span class=SpellE>Silvestris</span> or <span class=SpellE>Sylvestris</span>, a twelfth-century Platonist poet and philosopher and leader of the  school of Chartres (he has also been called Bernard de Chartres). Lewis quoted these same lines in a different translation, with the Latin original in a footnote, in <i>The Allegory of Love</i> (see note to Title, above) III.6, p. 95. The words are spoken by Urania, one of two figures whose help is invoked by Natura when the latter, having <span class=SpellE>succesfully</span> created the World, finds than creating Man is too much for her alone. Urania, the heaven-spirit, has to supply some  immediate divinity . On being summoned for the task, Urania  prophesies the high destinies of Man, whose soul, before birth, is to be made acquainted with all the influences of the heaven to which some day she will return . In <i>The Allegory</i>,<i> </i>the quotation has two extra lines. The full (translated) quotation there is:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:6.0pt;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 6.0pt;margin-left:4.0cm;line-height:115%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:115%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>With me through all the expanse of heaven must go<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Man s soul, and I will make her know<br> The laws of Fate allowing no repeal<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; And <span class=SpellE>Fortnue s</span> alterable wheel (...)<br> Her godlike essence when her body dies<br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Will seek again those kindred skies.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Law</span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;<i>A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life</i> (1728) XI, by the British Anglican divine William Law (1686 1761).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter X/1, The Same yet Different</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>You all know that security is mortals greatest enemy</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> </span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>: &nbsp;Shakespeare, <i>Macbeth</i> III.5, 32 33.  And you all know security / Is mortals <span class=SpellE>chiefest</span> enemy .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>tenth hierarch</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;The spirit coming after and being outside the nine celestial choirs of angels.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Wormwood</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Yet another synonym for Satan, borrowed from Revelation VIII.10 11.  And there fell a great star from heaven ... and the name of the star is called Wormwood; and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Ahriman</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;The Persian prince of evil, who tempted <span class=SpellE>Zoraster</span> but was defeated by him; Ahriman brought death to the world by slaying the prototypes of man and the animals. The idea to use this name as a synonym for Satan may well have reached Lewis through his friend Owen Barfield from Rudolf Steiner, the founder of Anthroposophy. Steiner explained the Fall of Man as a result of attacks by both  <span class=SpellE>Ahrimanic</span> and  <span class=SpellE>Luciferic</span> beings on humanity s spiritual awareness and social awareness respectively.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter X/2,&nbsp;The Synthetic Man</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>synthetic man</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Cf. C. S. Lewis s <i>Collected Letters</i> I, p. 909, letter of 22 June 1930 to Arthur Greeves.  Tolkien once remarked to me that the feeling about home must have been quite different in the days when a family had fed on the produce of the same few miles of country for six generations (...).We (...) who live on a <span class=SpellE>standardised</span> international diet (you may have had Canadian flour, English meat, Scotch oatmeal, African oranges, &amp; Australian wine to day) are really artificial beings and have no connection (save in sentiment) with any place on earth. We are synthetic men, uprooted.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>a man of shreds and patches</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Shakespeare, <i>Hamlet</i> III.4, 102.  A king of shreds and patches .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Rabelais,  Do what you will , <span class=SpellE>Thelemites</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;See note to V/7 above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><a name=facquodvis></a><span class=SpellE><span style='mso-bookmark:facquodvis'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Habe</span></i></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:facquodvis'></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> <span class=SpellE>caritatem</span> et <span class=SpellE>fac</span> quod vis</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  Have charity and do what you will. From St Augustine s seventh sermon on the First Epistle of John, cap. VIII: <span class=SpellE><i>Dilige</i></span><i>, et quod vis fac</i>. This saying is often ascribed to Augustine slightly modified, <span class=SpellE><i>Ama</i></span><i> et <span class=SpellE>fac</span> quod vis</i>. In this form its meaning is easily construed as  Fall in love and do what you will. Lewis modifies the original in a different way, which according to Walter Hooper was inspired by a sermon of St Thomas Aquinas on the Beatitudes; cf. Lewis s <i>Collected Letters</i> II, p. 194, note 50.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'> On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Matthew XXII.40. When asked by the Pharisees,  Master, which is the great commandment in the law? , Jesus answers,  Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy <span class=SpellE>neighbour</span> as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter X/3,&nbsp;Limbo</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>in desire without hope</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size: 12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Dante, <i>Inferno</i> IV, 42.  <span class=SpellE>Che</span> <span class=SpellE>senza</span> <span class=SpellE>speme</span> <span class=SpellE>vivemo</span> in <span class=SpellE>disio</span>. See also second epigraph for Book VII above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>Men say that his love and his wrath are one thing</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;<b>??&nbsp;&nbsp;</b>Lewis may have been thinking of George Macdonald in passages like the one in <i>Unspoken Sermons</i> II.3, quoted as No. 84 in Lewis s <i>Macdonald Anthology </i>(see second note to IX/4):  The terror of God is but the other side of His love. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>God in His mercy made / The <span class=SpellE>fixd</span> pains of Hell</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;This idea of God as Hell s maker very likely goes at least partly back to Dante s <i>Inferno</i> III, second stanza,  <span class=SpellE>Giustizia</span> <span class=SpellE>mosse</span> <span class=SpellE>il</span> <span class=SpellE>mio</span> alto <span class=SpellE>Fattore</span> etc.,  Justice moved my august Maker... <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter X/4, The Black Hole<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Nearly they stood who fall / fell who stand</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> : Cf. I Corinthians X.12,  & let him that <span class=SpellE>thinketh</span> he <span class=SpellE>standeth</span> take heed lest he fall. </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Siren s land</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;In early Greek popular belief, Sirens were thought to be two or three female demons on the south coast of Italy, who with their sweet song lured sailors to destruction on the rocks.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter X/5,&nbsp;<span class=SpellE>Superbia</span></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Superbia</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  Pride , one of the  seven deadly sins as defined in medieval theology. The others were <span class=SpellE><i>Avaritia</i></span> (Avarice or Covetousness), <span class=SpellE><i>Luxuria</i></span> (Lust), <span class=SpellE><i>Invidia</i></span> (Envy), <span class=SpellE><i>Gula</i></span> (Gluttony), <i>Ira</i> (Wrath), <span class=SpellE><i>Accidia</i></span> (Sloth). <span class=SpellE>Superbia</span> along with yet another sin, <span class=SpellE>Ignorantia</span>, was already mentioned by Father History (VIII/7) in connection with the  strange customs they were always imposing on the smaller tenants in the North.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Unwindowed</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> monad</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp; Monad is a mathematical and/or philosophical name for an <span class=SpellE>undivisible</span> smallest material or spiritual constituent. The word got currency&nbsp; above all through the philosophical system of German philosopher G. W. Leibniz (1646 1716; <span class=SpellE><i>Monadologie</i></span> 1714). Leibniz posited the  <span class=SpellE>unwindowed</span> nature of monads, arguing that these smallest constituents of reality could have no causal interaction<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'> When thou <span class=SpellE>tookest</span> upon thee to deliver man </span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;From <span class=SpellE><i>Te</i></span><i> Deum <span class=SpellE>Laudamus</span></i>, widely known as the Ambrosian Hymn since it got wrongly attributed to St Ambrose. <span class=SpellE><i>Tu</i></span><i> ad <span class=SpellE>liberandum</span> <span class=SpellE>suscepturus</span> hominem non <span class=SpellE>horruisti</span> <span class=SpellE>virginis</span> <span class=SpellE>uterum</span></i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>when she said that He had regarded the lowliness of His hand-maiden</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;From the <span class=SpellE><i>Maginificat</i></span>, the hymn of the Virgin Mary after Elisabeth has told her  blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb , Luke I.48.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Narcissus</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;In <span class=SpellE>acient</span> Greek <span class=SpellE>mythologicy</span>, a beautiful young man who fell in love with his own reflection in a pond, and pined away for grief because this object of his passion was unattainable.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter X/7,&nbsp; <span class=SpellE>Luxuria</span></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Luxuria</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  Lust ; cf. note to X/5, <span class=SpellE><i>Superbia</i></span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL;layout-grid-mode:line'>a fountain of writhing and reptilian life</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;The scene must have been inspired by Dante s <i>Inferno</i>, Book XXV.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Lilith</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;In Babylonian mythology, Lilith was a female spirit, childless and with poisonous breasts with which she tried to kill babies. In the Bible there is a single mention of her in Isaiah XXXIV.14, as  the satyr (AV) or  night creatures (NIV); in medieval Jewish mythology she became the malicious  first wife of Adam . For C.&nbsp;S. Lewis the figure of Lilith personified what he regarded as a specifically feminine vice  the craving to be desirable rather than beautiful. See also his novel <i>That Hideous Strength</i> III.3, where Jane Studdock is reminded of the difference between Eve and Lilith. A different and probably earlier version of this poem is to be found as a postscript of Lewis s letter to Arthur Greeves of 29 April 1930 (<i>Collected Letters</i> I, pp. 895 896).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>cloud is rolled / Always above yet no rain falls to the ground</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Cf. note to VII/1, <i>clouds and wind without rain.</i><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter X/8,&nbsp; The Northern Dragon</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>serpens</span></i></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> nisi <span class=SpellE>serpentem</span> <span class=SpellE>comederit</span></span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  If a snake won t eat snakes... The full phrase,  Serpens, nisi <span class=SpellE>serpentem</span> <span class=SpellE>comederit</span>, non fit <span class=SpellE>draco</span> means what the Dragon is going to sing in the next poem, third stanza, line 2,  ...worm grows not to dragon till he eat worm. This Latin saying was used, for example, in the early 17th century by Francis Bacon in his Essay No. 40,  Of Fortune . A century earlier, Erasmus included a slightly different version in his <span class=SpellE><i>Adagia</i></span> (III.3.61),  Serpens <span class=SpellE>ni</span> <span class=SpellE>edat</span> <span class=SpellE>serpentem</span>, <span class=SpellE>draco</span> non <span class=SpellE>fiet</span> . Erasmus mentions no source, but he does quote what must be a more original version in post-classical Greek, from a fifteenth-century collection of Greek proverbs edited by Michael <span class=SpellE>Apostolius</span> (No. XIII.79 in <span class=SpellE><i>Paroimiai</i></span>, published in 1619).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>druery</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Love-making.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter X/9,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Southern Dragon</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Behemoth</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;An animal mentioned in the Old Testament, Job XL.10, perhaps a hippopotamus but certainly very large and strong.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Pan</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;In Greek mythology, the lustful god of pastures, forests, flocks and herds, and the symbol of fecundity.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Leviathan</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;A huge aquatic animal mentioned in several places of the Old Testament: Job XLI.1, Psalms LXXIV.14 and CIV.26, and Isaiah XXVII.1.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span class=SpellE><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>resurgam</span></i></b></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;(Latin)  I shall rise again. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-variant:small-caps;mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Io Paean</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'> : &nbsp;Paean was the physician to the gods of ancient Greece, while <i>Io</i> was an exclamation often expressing suffering and invoking help; it later came to be used as a shout of praise or <span class=SpellE>thankgsgiving</span>, a cry of triumph or exultation, as <span class=SpellE>Vertue</span> uses it here.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Chapter X/10, <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>The Brook</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Osirian</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;From Osiris, Egyptian god of the lower world and judge of the dead.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>antediluvian</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Dating from before the biblical Flood (Latin <i>diluvium</i> = flood; <i>ante</i> = before).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>Substantial form</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;The word  substantial already appeared in the previous song, line 9,  As Thou hast made substantially, thou wilt unmake... The relevant meaning of  substance was earlier alluded to with the words  interior Form in the hermit s song at the end of Book VIII. It is a concept from Aristotle s philosophy, more particularly his theory of Categories.  Substance is there the word for any self-existent, unchanging and irreducible form that can be distinguished, irrespective of its precise content or properties. The Greek word is <span class=SpellE><i>ousia</i></span>   essence ,  nature . It certainly does not mean  matter or  material but rather the opposite.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>above the cone / Of t</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>he circling night</span></i></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'> : &nbsp;Perhaps an echo from a passage in Shelley s <i>Prometheus Unbound</i> (IV, 444 445), where The Earth says  I spin beneath my pyramid of night / Which points into the heavens dreaming delight... The reference in both cases appears to be to an idea developed in the ninth century by the Muslim astronomer </span><span class=SpellE><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>Alfraganus</span></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:13.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-ansi-language:EN-US'>; he calculated that the shadow of earth, in the form of a cone, reaches its point in the third of the nine heavens. Above or beyond that, there is thus no shadow ever to make for  more or lesser light . </span><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div style='margin-left:3.0cm;margin-right:70.9pt'> <div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;text-indent:-14.15pt'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:NL'> <hr size=1 width="100%" noshade style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1' align=center> </span></div> </div> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:3.0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.15pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>Last updates</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>13 April 2008: added note on III/3, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>imagine eating any</i> etc.<span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>2 February 2012: added note on Preface, <i>if nature makes nothing in vain</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt; line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>8 May 2008: expanded note on VI/6, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> Wind age, wolf age </i> etc.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>6 June &amp; 24 July 2011: added note on I/1, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>pull up the primroses<o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>2 March 2012: improved note on IX/6, <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Slikisteinsauga</i></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>5 August 2012: expanded note on VI/2, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Neo-Angular</i> etc.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>16 August 2012: expanded note on Preface, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>the word  Romanticism </i><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: NL'>12 April 2015: added notes on<br>  V/2, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>untie two pieces of string<br> </i> V/4, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Philosophy should be our mistress</i></span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><br>  </span><span lang=EN-US style='mso-ansi-language:EN-US'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:125%;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>V/4, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>the bit about thinking mortal thoughts</i><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span> VIII/1, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>In the Absolute, every flame ...<o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>25 April 2015: expanded note on VI/1, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Let Grill be Grill</i> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>7 May 2015:<br>  added note on VIII/10, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>the hermit ... doing and saying his holy things</i><br>  removed note on VI/6, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ploughing the sand</i><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>18 May 2016:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span> added note on Preface, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>when allegory is at its best</i><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>23 July 2017:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span> added note on X/4, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Nearly they stood who fall</i><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'>22 September 2017:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:70.9pt;margin-bottom: 0cm;margin-left:85.1pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-14.2pt;line-height: 125%;mso-hyphenate:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height: 125%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:NL'><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span> improved note on II/7, <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Eschropolis</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></span></p> </div> </body> </html>